compulsory [kəmˈpʌlsərɪ] — обязательно;
mandatory [ˈmændətərɪ] — обязательный;
skill [skɪl] — мастерство;
to depend [dɪˈpend] — зависить;
exception [ɪkˈsepſ(ə)n] — исключение;
Education is an important part of modern life.
Originally Russian education starts from the early age. Children can start going to kindergarten from the age of two, but this is not a compulsory education. It depends on parents’ decision and child’s wish to attend this institution.
In the Russian Federation the school education is compulsory. Pupils start going to school from the age of seven and till 16.
Mandatory education in Russia is presented by three types of schools: primary, secondary and high.
The primary school teaches its pupils elementary skills, such as reading, writing, counting. Many schools also offer foreign languages or some other special disciplines at this age.
The most important period is the secondary school, which starts from the 4th or 5th grade, depending on school. This is the time when children start learning Biology, Geography, Chemistry, Physics, Computing, and many other new subjects.
At the 9th grade children face a very important period in their life. They have to choose whether to continue school education, or to leave for other types of educational institutions, such as college, specialized schools and else. If the pupil decides to continue studying in high school, which lasts for two years, he can enter the university after school graduation.
Of course, it’s only the general pattern of education in Russia, but there can also be some exceptions nowadays. For example, there are lots of special schools, where they pay attention only to particular subjects. Also, apart from state schools, there are a number of private schools, where education is not free of charge.
When they complete high grades they can either continue to study at school for more 2 years, or go to a professional school where they study not only main subjects, but are able to learn some profession. When school pupils leave school they can try to continue their educaton in institutes or universities.